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Ukrainian history 

Scythians

In fact, the origin of the Scythians is mysterious, because the Scythians themselves had no written language, and information about them from other nations is very contradictory. The main source of historical information about them is the works of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus. According to one of the legends mentioned by the "father of history," the nomadic Scythians came from Asia to the northern Black Sea region, driving out the local Cimmerian tribes. But the same Herodotus in his other work, History, mentions another legend of the Scythians, according to which they have always lived in the Black Sea region.

In Herodotus' works, one can find many references to Scythian customs that were as strict as the Scythians themselves. Thus, when killing the first enemy, the Scythian had to drink his blood. The Scythians, like the American Indians, also had a bad habit of taking scalps from defeated enemies, from which they then sewed cloaks. In order to get their share of the spoils, the Scythians had to present the severed head of the enemy, and bowls were made from the heads of particularly fierce enemies. Also, every year the Scythian nobility organized feasts, in which only a Scythian who had killed an enemy could participate.

Divination was popular in Scythian society; special soothsayers told fortunes with the help of a bunch of rods or with the help of linden sponge. The Scythians cemented friendships with a special ritual: the blood of both friends was poured into a bowl of wine, then after the oaths were pronounced, this wine with blood was drunk by both friends.

The most interesting works of art discovered by archaeologists in Scythian mounds are objects decorated in the animal style. These include arrow quivers, sword hilts, women's necklaces, mirror handles, buckles, bracelets, hryvnias, and more.

In addition to images of animal figures, there are often scenes of various animals fighting. These images were made by forging, minting, casting, embossing, and carving, most often from gold, silver, bronze, or iron.

Princess Olga

 

Olga was the wife of Prince Ihor and the mother of Prince Sviatoslav. She was a princess regent after her husband's murder (from 945 to 962). She is known for her bloody revenge on the Drevlyans for Prince Ihor and as a princess who converted to Christianity and tried to make it the state religion of Rus.
After Ihor's murder, the Drevlyans sent an embassy to Kyiv with an offer to the prince's widow to marry their prince Mal. Olga calmly received the ambassadors, asking for a little time, after which they were buried alive near the princely court. Later, on Olga's orders, the best Drevlianian men, whom the princess had invited to Kyiv to show respect for her, were burned in a bathhouse, and a drunken Drevlianian army was killed, which was gathered for a massacre for Ihor. These facts do not seem quite true, because the Drevlyans fell into the insidious and, most importantly, deadly traps of the princess, driven by the desire of their prince to marry the widow of the prince of Kyiv. In other words, quite openly, ancient sources emphasize both Drevlianian naivete b
ordering on stupidity and Olga's bloody cunning for revenge. The most famous is the last chord of the princess's extermination of the Drevlyans. Having laid siege to their main city of Iskorosten (modern Korosten, Zhytomyr region), Olga demanded three pigeons and a sparrow from each household as tribute. The townspeople gladly agreed to such easy terms. When the princess received the birds, she ordered them to tie burning rags to each of them. The birds, frightened by the fire, flew to their yards, setting the entire town on fire. Iskorosten was substantially destroyed, and the Drevlyans were never again a significant force in Rus.

Three brothers - Kiy, Shchek, Khoriv and their sister Lybid

According to the traditions and legends about the founding of Kyiv, it is commonly believed that Kyiv owes its appearance to three brothers from the tribe of Polians-Kyiv, Shchekiv, and Khoriv-and their sister Lybid.

The name of Kyiv comes from the name of Kyi, the eldest of the three brothers, who are considered to be the founders of the main city of Ukraine-Rus. The legend of Kyi has come down to us in the twelfth-century chronicle Tale of Bygone Years.

"...-there were [among them] three brothers: one whose name was Kiy, and the other Shchek, and the third Khoriv, and their sister Lybid. And Kyi sat on the mountain where the Borychiv descent is now, and Shchek sat on the mountain that is now called Shchekovytsia, and Khoriv sat on the third mountain, and hence it was called Khorivytsia. They built a town [and] named it Kyiv in honor of their eldest brother. And around the city was a large forest and a forest, and they hunted animals [here]. And they were wise and clever men, and they were called Poliany. There are still glades in Kyiv today.

But others, not knowing, said that Kyi was a carrier, because at that time the transportation around Kyiv was on the other side of the Dnipro. That's why they said: "For transportation to Kyiv."

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